DBS is approved in the United States by the Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of Parkinson's. A systematic review of DBS for treatment resistant depression and obsessive–compulsive disorder identified 23 cases—nine for OCD, seven for treatment-resistant depression, and one for both. It found that "about half the patients did show dramatic improvement" and that adverse events were "generally trivial" given the younger psychiatric patient population than with movements disorders.
Deep brain stimulation has been used experimentally in treating a few patients with severe Tourette syndrome. Despite widely publicized early successes, DBS remains a highly experimental procedure for the treatment of Tourette's, and more study is needed to determine whether long-term benefits outweigh the risk. DBS has been used in the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder and phantom limb pain. The procedure is being tested for effectiveness in patients with severe epilepsy.
DBS has been tried for patients with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome in Japan, Switzerland and France.